Research reports

Scientific Publications

Here you will find publications related to the research of the i-LUM project.

Analyse von Energieverbrauchsmodellen für elektrisch betriebene Transportdrohnen

Mavraj, G.; Fu, Y.; Avdevičius, E.; Schulz, D.


Der Energieverbrauch ist eine entscheidende Einschränkung für den elektrischen Betrieb von Transportdrohnen. Der vorliegende Artikel stellt eine Übersicht verschiedener Drohnen-Energieverbrauchsmodelle unter Verwendung einheitlicher Notation dar. Hierbei werden relevante Einflussfaktoren und deren Wechselwirkung mit der Konfiguration der Drohne analysiert. Die Modellergebnisse werden hinsichtlich dem Energieverbrauch pro Meter (Epm) derselben Drohnenkonfiguration während einer stationären Flugphase analysiert.

Hamburger Beiträge zum technischen Klimaschutz – Analyse, Digitalisierung und Flexibilisierung von Energiemärkten, Elektromobilität, Sektorenkopplung, Elektroenergienetzen und Wasserstoffsystemen

A Systematic Review of Ground-Based Infrastructure for the Innovative Urban Air Mobility

Gazmend Mavraj, Jil Eltgen, Tim Fraske, Majed Swaid, Jan Berling, Ole Röntgen, Yuzhuo Fu, Detlef Schulz


the increasing level of urbanisation and traffic congestion promotes the concept of urban air mobility (UAM), which has become a thriving topic in engineering and neighbouring disciplines. the development of a suitable ground-based infrastructure is necessary to supply these innovative vehicles, which mainly includes networks of take-off and landing sites, facilities for maintenance, energy supply, and navigation and communication capabilities. Further requirements comprise robust business and operating models for emerging service providers and regulatory frameworks, particularly regarding safety, liability and noise emissions. the objective of this study is to provide an overview of the current results and developments in the field of UAM ground-based infrastructure by conducting a systematic literature review (SLr) and to identify the most relevant research gaps in the field. For the systematic literature analysis, our search string contains vertiports and the equivalents, UAM and equivalents, and search phrases for the individual domains. In the final analysis 64 articles were included, finding a strong focus on simulations and vertiport networks, while specific case studies and related aspects like automated MrO and urban planning appear less frequently. therefore, this article provides insights for a more holistic perspective on challenges and necessities of future UAM.

Transactions on Aerospace Research, vol.2022, no.4, 2022, pp.1-17

Technical Concepts for Inspecting UAVs for Damage

Jil Eltgen, Thorsten Schüppstuhl


The current movement toward urban air mobility (UAM) shows the importance of a ground-basedinfrastructure network to provide urban air vehicles (UAV). To ensure the safety aspect it is necessary to developa system that can inspect the arrived UAV for damages. Therefore, technical concepts for inspecting UAVs fordamage are elaborated. To identify the best system for technical development under the presented conceptsevaluation criteria must be defined and applied. These include properties, technical systems, and other criteriasuch as the costs. In the first step for every UAV inspection system, the differences between the motionsequences will be examined. In the second step, there will be an investigation of the sensor systems presented.In conclusion, the systems with the best results in both parts are merged for an inspection setup for furtherinvestigations.

Proceedings of the 33th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences Stockholm, Sweden

Verwaltungsrechtliche Fragen des unbemannten Luftverkehrs – Herausforderungen der U-Space-Verordnung für das nationale Recht

Christian Worpenberg, Dr. Dana-Sophia Valentiner, Josina Johannsen, Dr. Katharina Goldberg


Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den aktuellen Entwicklungen im Recht der unbemannten Luftfahrt. Nach dem Erlass der Durchführungsverordnung (EU) der Kommission 2021/664 über einen Rechtsrahmen für den U-Space vom 22.4.2021 (im Folgenden: U-Space-VO) stellt sich die Frage, welche Auswirkungen die Verordnung auf das nationale Luftrecht hat. Ziel des Beitrags ist es, nach einer kurzen Aufarbeitung des neuen regulatorischen Rahmens Anpassungsbedarfe des geltenden Luftrechts in Deutschland, insbesondere im Spannungsfeld von hoheitlicher Aufgabenwahrnehmung und Wettbewerb, zu identifizieren und Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten und -herausforderungen, etwa im Zusammenhang mit der Beleihung, auszuloten.

Neue Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsrecht (NVwZ) 2022, S. 1182 = NVwZ-Extra 10/2022, S. 1-9

An assessment of the acceptance and aesthetics of UAVs and helicopters through an experiment and a survey

Kähler, S. T., Abben, T., Luna-Rodriguez, A., Tomat, M., & Jacobsen, T.


Public attitude toward Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been extensively researched, frequently using surveys or experimental settings involving sound/noise. In this study, we present an experiment using visual stimuli, exploring not only the acceptance of UAVs as such but also of their interactions with different environments. The stimuli were pictures of quadcopters, either white or orange, with medical or commercial markings. For comparison, pictures of helicopters with the same four variations and a goose were also used. These pictures were superimposed over three types of backgrounds: urban, industrial, and rural.
Twenty-four student participants took part in this study, each responding to 81 stimuli with Likert scale ratings for the acceptance and beauty of the stimuli after responding to objects that were used as a manipulation check. Reaction times for all responses were recorded. Afterward, participants completed a survey designed to identify the reasons for their judgments regarding acceptance. Our results deliver a complex view of the acceptance of UAVs. For example, the usage of the UAV had the largest impact on acceptance, with medical usage having the highest acceptance rating. Commercial usage was more accepted in industrial areas, and UAVs were more accepted than helicopters.
The survey showed a heterogeneous variety and relevance of reasons for the acceptance ratings. On average, usefulness, traffic relief, reduction of privacy, and acceptance by society were indicated as the most relevant factors affecting the acceptance ratings.
In general, our study suggests that the less considered visual factors of drones (salience in our study) can be expected to influence the acceptance of UAVs in addition to the noise factor. Most importantly, the physical characteristics of UAVs alone are insufficient to predict their acceptance. The purposes for which UAVs are used (that might be visually recognizable) and the environment in which they are operated play an important role in shaping public attitudes towards this new technology.

Technology in Society, 71, 102096

A Collaborative Approach for an Integrated Modeling of Urban Air Transportation Systems

Malte Niklaß, Niclas Dzikus, Majed Swaid, Jan Berling, Benjamin Lührs, Alexander Lau, Ivan Terekhov, Volker Gollnick


The current push in automation, communication, and electrical energy storage technologies has the potential to lift urban mobility into the sky. As several urban air mobility (UAM) concepts are conceivable, all relevant physical effects as well as mutual interrelations of the UAM system have to be addressed and evaluated at a sufficient level of fidelity before implementation. Therefore, a collaborative system of systems modeling approach for UAM is presented. To quickly identify physical effects and cross-disciplinary influences of UAM, a pool of low-fidelity physical analysis components is developed and integrated into the Remote Component Environment (RCE) workflow engine. This includes, i. a., the disciplines of demand forecast, trajectory, vertiport, and cost modeling as well as air traffic flow and capacity management. The definition and clarification of technical interfaces require intensive cooperation between specialists with different areas of expertise. To reduce this communication effort, the Common Parametric Aircraft Configuration Schema (CPACS) is adapted and used as central data exchange format. The UAM system module is initially applied for a 24-hour simulation of three generic networks in Hamburg City. After understanding the basic system-level behavior, higher level analysis components and feedback loops must be integrated in the UAM system module for evaluation and optimization of explicit operating concepts.

Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 50


innovative airborne urbane mobility

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