Research reports

Scientific Publications

Here you will find publications related to the research of the i-LUM project.

Verwaltungsrechtliche Fragen des unbemannten Luftverkehrs – Herausforderungen der U-Space-Verordnung für das nationale Recht

Christian Worpenberg, Dr. Dana-Sophia Valentiner, Josina Johannsen, Dr. Katharina Goldberg


Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den aktuellen Entwicklungen im Recht der unbemannten Luftfahrt. Nach dem Erlass der Durchführungsverordnung (EU) der Kommission 2021/664 über einen Rechtsrahmen für den U-Space vom 22.4.2021 (im Folgenden: U-Space-VO) stellt sich die Frage, welche Auswirkungen die Verordnung auf das nationale Luftrecht hat. Ziel des Beitrags ist es, nach einer kurzen Aufarbeitung des neuen regulatorischen Rahmens Anpassungsbedarfe des geltenden Luftrechts in Deutschland, insbesondere im Spannungsfeld von hoheitlicher Aufgabenwahrnehmung und Wettbewerb, zu identifizieren und Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten und -herausforderungen, etwa im Zusammenhang mit der Beleihung, auszuloten.

Neue Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsrecht (NVwZ) 2022, S. 1182 = NVwZ-Extra 10/2022, S. 1-9

An assessment of the acceptance and aesthetics of UAVs and helicopters through an experiment and a survey

Kähler, S. T., Abben, T., Luna-Rodriguez, A., Tomat, M., & Jacobsen, T.


Public attitude toward Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been extensively researched, frequently using surveys or experimental settings involving sound/noise. In this study, we present an experiment using visual stimuli, exploring not only the acceptance of UAVs as such but also of their interactions with different environments. The stimuli were pictures of quadcopters, either white or orange, with medical or commercial markings. For comparison, pictures of helicopters with the same four variations and a goose were also used. These pictures were superimposed over three types of backgrounds: urban, industrial, and rural.
Twenty-four student participants took part in this study, each responding to 81 stimuli with Likert scale ratings for the acceptance and beauty of the stimuli after responding to objects that were used as a manipulation check. Reaction times for all responses were recorded. Afterward, participants completed a survey designed to identify the reasons for their judgments regarding acceptance. Our results deliver a complex view of the acceptance of UAVs. For example, the usage of the UAV had the largest impact on acceptance, with medical usage having the highest acceptance rating. Commercial usage was more accepted in industrial areas, and UAVs were more accepted than helicopters.
The survey showed a heterogeneous variety and relevance of reasons for the acceptance ratings. On average, usefulness, traffic relief, reduction of privacy, and acceptance by society were indicated as the most relevant factors affecting the acceptance ratings.
In general, our study suggests that the less considered visual factors of drones (salience in our study) can be expected to influence the acceptance of UAVs in addition to the noise factor. Most importantly, the physical characteristics of UAVs alone are insufficient to predict their acceptance. The purposes for which UAVs are used (that might be visually recognizable) and the environment in which they are operated play an important role in shaping public attitudes towards this new technology.

Technology in Society, 71, 102096

A Collaborative Approach for an Integrated Modeling of Urban Air Transportation Systems

Malte Niklaß, Niclas Dzikus, Majed Swaid, Jan Berling, Benjamin Lührs, Alexander Lau, Ivan Terekhov, Volker Gollnick


The current push in automation, communication, and electrical energy storage technologies has the potential to lift urban mobility into the sky. As several urban air mobility (UAM) concepts are conceivable, all relevant physical effects as well as mutual interrelations of the UAM system have to be addressed and evaluated at a sufficient level of fidelity before implementation. Therefore, a collaborative system of systems modeling approach for UAM is presented. To quickly identify physical effects and cross-disciplinary influences of UAM, a pool of low-fidelity physical analysis components is developed and integrated into the Remote Component Environment (RCE) workflow engine. This includes, i. a., the disciplines of demand forecast, trajectory, vertiport, and cost modeling as well as air traffic flow and capacity management. The definition and clarification of technical interfaces require intensive cooperation between specialists with different areas of expertise. To reduce this communication effort, the Common Parametric Aircraft Configuration Schema (CPACS) is adapted and used as central data exchange format. The UAM system module is initially applied for a 24-hour simulation of three generic networks in Hamburg City. After understanding the basic system-level behavior, higher level analysis components and feedback loops must be integrated in the UAM system module for evaluation and optimization of explicit operating concepts.

Aerospace 2020, 7(5), 50


innovative airborne urbane mobility

Research institutions